National systems striving to protect prisoners’ labour and social security rights have been introduced in the legislation of many countries around the world. Nowadays, national law concerning the protection of these rights is becoming more consequential and in line with international standards. Worldwide, penal systems experiencing a period from barbarism to civilization, from non-social-oriented to socialized, from closed to open, national penal reform on prisoners’ labour and social security rights are gaining importance. This book provides national legislators with insights and recommendations resulting from academic research which can be used to improve the protection of prisoners’ labour and social security rights in national legal arrangements. Above all, this book provides references for national legislation, the research findings serving as a guide for any country willing to protect prison labour according to worldwide recognized legal standards.